Assessment of gonadotropins and testosterone hormone levels in regular Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) users.

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Author information

1
Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address: darshan@usm.my.
2
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
3
Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia.
4
Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
5
Dept. of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Taiping, 34000 Taiping, Perak, Malaysia.
6
Center for Intelligent Signal & Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.
7
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, 1345 Center Drive, Room P6-20, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.

METHODS:

A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.

RESULTS:

We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.

CONCLUSION:

Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.

KEYWORDS:

Hypogonadism; Kratom; Malaysia; Mitragyna speciosa; Testosterone

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