- Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
- Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia.
- Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
- Dept. of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital Taiping, 34000 Taiping, Perak, Malaysia.
- Center for Intelligent Signal & Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia.
- Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, 1345 Center Drive, Room P6-20, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.
A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.
We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.
Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.
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Hypogonadism; Kratom; Malaysia; Mitragyna speciosa; Testosterone